When running the SQL Server Installation Centre I was receiving the above error. This seems to be caused by the software being installed to a temp folder which is subsequently deleted post install.
Mine had been installed from a folder on the network. Even pointing to this folder when prompted didn’t resolve the problem.
Solution that worked for me:
1. Copy the entire installation folder to my local drive (this step may not be necessary but made it easier for me). E.g. C:\SQL Server Install\
2. Launch the SQL Server Installation Centre.
3. Go to Options – and set Installation Media Root Directory to the folder you copied the installation files to. E.g. C:\SQL Server Install\
You may be able to leave the files in the original install location and just set the path depending on access.